2000 International AIDS Conference

CAPS presentations at the 2000 International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa

Disclosure of HIV Status to Sexual Partners among a Random Sample of American Seropositives
Dan Ciccarone , Ron Stall , Rebecca Collins, James Chen, Angela Miu, Sandra Berry, Sally Morton, David Kanouse Poster (PDF 142K)
Two- to Seven-Fold Decreased Risk Associated With Use of a Syringe Exchange Program (SEP)
DR Gibson, R Brand, K Anderson Poster (PDF 86K)
Sociocultural Factors Influenceing HIV/AIDS Prevention among Youth in Rural Guatemala
J Ikeda, ML Sac, E Hudes, N Hearst Poster (PDF 86K)
Integration of STI/HIV/AIDS Prevention in Midwife Training Course in the Guatemala Highlands
ML Sac, J Ikeda, BL Coyoy, M Castrillo, N Hearst Poster (PDF 62K)
Sociocultural Factors and Risk Perceptions among Mayan Women in the Guatemala Highlands
ML Sac, J Ikeda, M Castrillo, N Hearst Poster (PDF 133K)
Collaborative Prevention Research and Training for Scientists from Developing Countries: A 12-Year Overview of the Center For AIDS Prevention Studies’ International Training Program
GW Rutherford, J Mandel, N Hearst, D Bain, A Reingold, TJ. Coates Poster (PDF 133K)
The Uninfected Children of HIV+ U.S. Mothers: A Vulnerable and Growing Sub-population of the AIDS Epidemic
M Truskier, WT Boyce, M Chesney, D Wara Poster (PDF 142K)
Systematic reviews from the Cochrane Review Group on HIV infection and AIDS
Kennedy GE, Rutherford GW Poster (PDF 142K)
Men who practice exclusively oral sex: demographics, sexual behaviors, and perceived risk of oral acquisition of HIV infection.
Page-Shafer KA, Dilley J, Stall R, McFarland W, Shiboski C, Raymond H, Sabatino J, Adler B, Casey S , Osmond D, Greenspan D Poster (PDF 142K)
Increased incidence of HIV and evidence of transmission of resistant virus among anonymous test site (ATS) attendees in Santos, Brazil, 1995-1999.
K Page-Shafer, K. Alves, A. Graves, M. Caseiro, B. Rawal, C. Sucupira, H. Guevara, R. Diaz, M. Hendry, G. Rutherford, T. Coates
HIV is associated with sexual risk and HCV with injection risk among young injection drug users in San Francisco
Page-Shafer KA, Hahn J, Graves A, Ochoa K, Lum P, Evans J, Moss A. Poster (PDF 142K)
HIV Risk Behaviors among Asian Massage Parlor Workers in San Francisco
Nemoto, Tooru Poster (PDF 142K)
Detection of Recent HIV Infection Using the Serological Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion: New Public Health Opportunities for Prevention
W. McFarland, S. Schwarcz, K. Page-Shafer, D. Withum, G. Satten, R. Janssen Poster (PDF 142K)
Repeat HIV Antibody Testing: Are Persons Who Test Most Frequently at Highest Risk of Seroconversion?
Fernyak S, Page-Shafer KA, Kellogg T, McFarland W, Katz M
Sex and drug exchanges among African-American men who have sex with men at risk for HIV/ AIDS in San Francisco, CA.
A Williams, G.M. Crosby, E. Bein, R. Durazzo, J. Headlee, J. Bey Poster (PDF 114K)
Impoverished African American men who have sex with men lack basic sexual risk information and have high levels of sexual risk for HIV/AIDS.
A Williams, G.M. Crosby, E. Bein, R. Durazzo, J. Headlee, J. Bey Poster (PDF 114K)
Substance use and HIV sexual risk taking among low-income African American men who have sex with men
G.M. Crosby, A Williams, E. Bein, R. Durazzo, J. Headlee, J. Bey Poster (PDF 114K)
Sentinel Surveillance for HIV and Markers for High Risk Behaviors among STD Clinic Attendees in Alexandria, Egypt
E. Saleh, W. Mcfarland, G. Rutherford, J. Mandel, M. El-Shazaly, T. Coates Poster (PDF 114K)
A Comprehensive HIV Risk Reduction Intervention among The Street and Working Children of Nizamuddin in New Delhi, India
Nalini Sahay, Maria Ekstrand, Deborah Bain, Jeffrey Mandel Poster (PDF 114K)
HIV Testing and Counseling: Opportunity for Overdose Prevention among Young Injection Drug Users
K C. Ochoa , K P Shafer, J L. Evans, JA. Hahn , P J. Lum , A R. Moss Poster (PDF 114K)
Views and Attitudes Towards HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing among Urban Men, Harare, Zimbabwe
R. Machekano, W. Mcfarland , M. Bassett 1 , E. Dube, J. Mandel , D. Katzenstein Poster (PDF 62K)
Impact of Condom Use Skills Workshops on Condom Acquisition and Use among Young Men in Kampala, Uganda
M. Kamya, L. Kapiriri, S. Kamya, P. Kajubi, C. Biryabarema, N. Hearst, W. Mcfarland Poster (PDF 94K)
Sustained Reductions In HIV Risk Behaviors Following Voluntary Counseling and Testing
The HIV-1 Voluntary Counseling and Testing Efficacy Study Group Poster (PDF 169K)
Effects of Peer Education on Knowledge of AIDS & Condom Use among Female Apprentice Tailors in Ibadan, Nigeria
AJ Ajuwon, , P Lurie, J Mandel,, S Adedapo, T Okikiolu Poster (PDF 92K)
Developing a Multi-tiered HIV Prevention Project for HIV+ Gay Men in San Francisco: Using a CAB & Secondary Data Analyses to Create an Evidence-based Intervention Design – Year 01
M Shriver Poster (PDF 180K)
Factors Affecting African-American Participation in AIDS Research
S Sengupta Poster (PDF 180K)

Repeat HIV Antibody Testing: Are Persons Who Test Most Frequently at Highest Risk of Seroconversion?

 

Fernyak S, Page-Shafer KA, Kellogg T, McFarland W, Katz M

Objective: As one-third of HIV tests in the U.S. are in individuals who have previously been tested, we sought to characterize risk for HIV seroconversion among repeat testers using data from San Francisco’s publicly funded HIV Counseling and Testing (C&T) sites.

Methods: Records of HIV tests from 1995-97 (n=57,505 tests) were reviewed; 33,770 (59%) were repeat tests; 22,565 (67%) provided information on previous testing and were included in the analysis. HIV incidence was estimated using results of the current test and the time period to the last reported HIV negative test. A four-level hierarchy of risk behaviors was created by ranking self-reported risk behaviors (e.g. IDU, receptive anal intercourse, heterosexual vaginal sex, etc) according to HIV seroincidence. Repeat testing rates were calculated for each risk level.

Results: moderate-high risk level (HIV incidence 2.0-2.1/100PY) had a repeater rate of 92%, with 5.3 tests/person. The high-risk level (2.6-7.0/100PY) had a repeater rate of 86% with 5.0 tests/person. The rate of repeat testing in the lowest risk level (0.2-05/100PY) was 65%.

Conclusion: The demographic profile of persons with high levels of repeat testing accounts for the largest number of HIV seroconversions. Further, high frequency repeat testers are also those who practicing the highest risk behavior and have the highest incidence of HIV. Contrary to previous reports, findings indicate that repeat testers are not simply the “worried well”, but are indeed at high risk of seroconversion. A high frequency of testing is justified for early HIV diagnosis.


Increased incidence of HIV and evidence of transmission of resistant virus among anonymous test site (ATS) attendees in Santos, Brazil, 1995-1999.

 

Kimberly Page-Shafer, K. Alves, A. Graves, M. Caseiro, B. Rawal, C. Sucupira, H. Guevara, R. Diaz, M. Hendry, G. Rutherford, T. Coates

Objectives: To (1) estimate HIV incidence among ATS clients in Santos, Brazil by sensitive/less-sensitive (S/LS) EIA testing; (2) describe risk factors associated with recent infection; and (3) measure the prevalence of antiretroviral (ARV) resistance and subtypes among recent infections.

Methods: We collected sera from 10,725 HIV-infected ATS clients ³ 18 years; 698 (6.5%) were HIV-1+. Recent infections were identified by a positive EIA 3A11 and a negative EIA 3A11-LS (termed HIV+SC) and incidence calculated using a standard algorithm. We also compared demographic and risk behavior in 17 HIV+SC identified in 1999 and comparison groups of HIV- (N=37) and other HIV+ (N=37). We subtyped HIV-1 by synthetic peptides based on the V3 region of HIV gp120. We tested for ARV genotypic resistance by PCR amplification from proviral DNA and genomic sequencing of pol region.

Results: Of 392 HIV+ clients whose samples were available, 44 (11%) were HIV+SC. Annual incidence per 100 py was 1.9%, 1.5%, 1.3%, 2.4% and 3.2%. There were no differences in age, race, marital or educational status among HIV-, HIV+SC and HIV+. 76% of HIV+SC were female; 61.5% had 1 sex partner in the past year. Risk factors for HIV+SC compared to HIV- were female sex (OR 8.0; 95%CI 1.2-52), anal sex (OR 11.5; 95%CI 2.4-55.4), and history of STD (OR 4.2; 95%CI 0.9-19.8). Almost all (97%) of the isolates were subtype B; 56% were the Brazilian variant Br; 2 were C. We found high-level genotypic resistance to AZT in 1/5 HIV+SC (M41L+T215Y). Few accessory mutations and a high level of polymorphism was found at the protease region.

Conclusions: This study documents recent increases in HIV incidence in Santos, Brazil. Recent infections are primarily among females reporting steady sexual partnerships, anal sex and history of STD. We found no non-B or C subtypes. There was evidence of transmission of ARV-resistant virus, pointing strongly to the need for further efforts to monitor this phenomenon in Brazil.

Last modified: November 2, 2012